# Category: Engineering ratios

Gliding flight
Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals. It is employed by gliding animals and by aircraft such as glider
Slip ratio
Slip ratio is a means of calculating and expressing the slipping behavior of the wheel of an automobile. It is of fundamental importance in the field of vehicle dynamics, as it allows to understand th
D/U ratio
In the design of radio broadcast systems, especially television systems, the desired-to-undesired channel ratio (D/U ratio) is a measure of the strength of the broadcast signal for a particular channe
Coefficient of performance
The coefficient of performance or COP (sometimes CP or CoP) of a heat pump, refrigerator or air conditioning system is a ratio of useful heating or cooling provided to work (energy) required. Higher C
Excess noise ratio
In electronics, excess noise ratio is a characteristic of a noise generator such as a "noise diode", that is used to measure the noise performance of amplifiers. The Y-factor method is a common measur
Motion ratio
The motion ratio of a mechanism is the ratio of the displacement of the point of interest to that of another point. The most common example is in a vehicle's suspension, where it is used to describe t
Peak signal-to-noise ratio
Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is an engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation.
Fineness ratio
In naval architecture and aerospace engineering, the fineness ratio is the ratio of the length of a body to its maximum width. Shapes that are short and wide have a low fineness ratio, those that are
Water–cement ratio
The water–cement ratio (w/c ratio, or water-to-cement ratio, sometimes also called the water-cement factor, f) is the ratio of the mass of water (w) to the mass of cement (c) used in a concrete mix: T
Aspect ratio (aeronautics)
In aeronautics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its span to its mean chord. It is equal to the square of the wingspan divided by the wing area. Thus, a long, narrow wing has a high aspect r
Extinction ratio
In telecommunications, extinction ratio (re) is the ratio of two optical power levels of a digital signal generated by an optical source, e.g., a laser diode. The extinction ratio may be expressed as
Signal-to-interference ratio
The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR or S/I), also known as the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR or C/I), is the quotient between the average received modulated carrier power S or C and the average
Steering ratio
Steering ratio refers to the ratio between the turn of the steering wheel (in degrees) or handlebars and the turn of the wheels (in degrees). The steering ratio is the ratio of the number of degrees o
Thrust-to-weight ratio
Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that is an indicator of the performance of the e
Fuel mass fraction
In combustion physics, fuel mass fraction is the ratio of fuel mass flow to the total mass flow of a fuel mixture. If an air flow is fuel free, the fuel mass fraction is zero; in pure fuel without tra
Dynamic range
Dynamic range (abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR) is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume. It is often used in the context of signals, like sound and light. I
Air–fuel ratio
Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process. The combustion may take place in a controlled manner such as in an internal combustio
Front-to-back ratio
In telecommunication, the term front-to-back ratio (also known as front-to-rear ratio) can mean: 1. * The ratio of power gain between the front and rear of a directional antenna. 2. * Ratio of signa
Lift-to-drag ratio
In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio (or L/D ratio) is the lift generated by an aerodynamic body such as an aerofoil or aircraft, divided by the aerodynamic drag caused by moving through air. It de
Lighting ratio
Lighting ratio in photography refers to the comparison of key light (the main source of light from which shadows fall) to the fill light (the light that fills in the shadow areas). The higher the ligh
Rudder ratio
Rudder ratio refers to a value that is monitored by the computerized flight control systems in modern aircraft. The ratio relates the aircraft airspeed to the rudder deflection setting that is in effe
Transformer utilization factor
The transformer utilization factor (TUF) of a rectifier circuit is defined as the ratio of the DC power available at the load resistor to the AC rating of the secondary coil of a transformer. The rati
Pseudo bit error ratio
Pseudo bit error ratio (PBER) in adaptive high-frequency (HF) radio, is a bit error ratio derived by a majority decoder that processes redundant transmissions. Note: In adaptive HF radio automatic lin
Crawl ratio
Crawl ratio is a term used in the automotive world to describe the highest gear ratio that a vehicle is capable of. Note that gear ratio, also known as speed ratio, of a gear train is defined as the r
Power supply rejection ratio
In electronic systems, power supply rejection ratio (PSRR), also supply-voltage rejection ratio (kSVR; SVR), is a term widely used to describe the capability of an electronic circuit to suppress any p
Quantum efficiency
The term quantum efficiency (QE) may apply to incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) ratio of a photosensitive device, or it may refer to the TMR effect of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction. This artic
Signal-to-crosstalk ratio
The signal-to-crosstalk ratio at a specified point in a circuit is the ratio of the power of the wanted signal to the power of the unwanted signal from another channel. The signals are adjusted in eac
Data compression ratio
Data compression ratio, also known as compression power, is a measurement of the relative reduction in size of data representation produced by a data compression algorithm. It is typically expressed a
Stroke ratio
In a reciprocating piston engine, the stroke ratio, defined by either bore/stroke ratio or stroke/bore ratio, is a term to describe the ratio between cylinder bore diameter and piston stroke length. T
Factor of safety
In engineering, a factor of safety (FoS), also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), expresses how much stronger a system is than it needs to be for an intended load. Safety fac
Displacement–length ratio
The displacement–length ratio (DLR or D/L ratio) is a calculation used to express how heavy a boat is relative to its waterline length. DLR was first published in Taylor, David W. (1910). The Speed an
Insertion loss
In telecommunications, insertion loss is the loss of signal power resulting from the insertion of a device in a transmission line or optical fiber and is usually expressed in decibels (dB). If the pow
Bowen ratio
The Bowen ratio is used to describe the type of heat transfer for a surface that has moisture. Heat transfer can either occur as sensible heat (differences in temperature without evapotranspiration) o
Q factor
In physics and engineering, the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is. It is defined as the ratio of the initial energy s
Standing wave ratio
In radio engineering and telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide. Impedance mismat
Return on modeling effort
Return on modelling effort (ROME) is the benefit resulting from a (supplementary) effort to create and / or improve a model.
Bypass ratio
The bypass ratio (BPR) of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core. A 10:1 bypass ratio, for example, means that 10 kg of
Eb/N0
In digital communication or data transmission, (energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measure, also known as the "SNR per bit". It is especi
Sail Area-Displacement ratio
The Sail Area-Displacement ratio (SA/D) is a calculation used to express how much sail a boat carries relative to its weight. In the first equation, the denominator in pounds is divided by 64 to conve
Figure of merit
A figure of merit is a quantity used to characterize the performance of a device, system or method, relative to its alternatives.
Specific strength
The specific strength is a material's (or muscle's) strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density. It is also known as the strength-to-weight ratio or strength/weight ratio or stren
Power-to-weight ratio
Power-to-weight ratio (PWR, also called specific power, or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to
Overall pressure ratio
In aeronautical engineering, overall pressure ratio, or overall compression ratio, is the ratio of the stagnation pressure as measured at the front and rear of the compressor of a gas turbine engine.
Common-mode rejection ratio
In electronics, the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential amplifier (or other device) is a metric used to quantify the ability of the device to reject common-mode signals, i.e. those th
Strehl ratio
The Strehl ratio is a measure of the quality of optical image formation, originally proposed by Karl Strehl, after whom the term is named. Used variously in situations where optical resolution is comp
Transmissibility (vibration)
Transmissibility is the ratio of output to input. It is defined as the ratio of the force transmitted to the force applied. Transmitted force implies the one which is being transmitted to the foundati
Pixel density
Pixels per inch (ppi) and pixels per centimetre (ppcm or pixels/cm) are measurements of the pixel density of an electronic image device, such as a computer monitor or television display, or image digi
Display contrast
Contrast in visual perception is a felt difference in appearance of two or more parts of a field seen simultaneously or successively (hence: brightness contrast, lightness contrast, color contrast, si
Turndown ratio
Turndown ratio refers to the width of the operational range of a device, and is defined as the ratio of the maximum capacity to minimum capacity. For example, a device with a maximum output of 10 unit
Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio
In information theory and telecommunication engineering, the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) (also known as the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SNIR)) is a quantity used to giv
Floor area ratio
Floor area ratio (FAR) is the ratio of a building's total floor area (gross floor area) to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built. It is often used as one of the regulations in city plan
Return loss
In telecommunications, return loss is a measure in relative terms of the power of the signal reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. This discontinuity can be caused by a
Spectral signal-to-noise ratio
In scientific imaging, the two-dimensional spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) is a signal-to-noise ratio measure which measures the normalised cross-correlation coefficient between several two-dime
Lock number
In helicopter aerodynamics, the Lock number is the ratio of aerodynamic forces, which act to lift the rotor blades, to inertial forces, which act to maintain the blades in the plane of rotation. It is
Engine pressure ratio
The engine pressure ratio (EPR) is the total pressure ratio across a jet engine, measured as the ratio of the total pressure at the exit of the propelling nozzle divided by the total pressure at the e
Display aspect ratio
The aspect ratio of a display device is the proportional relationship between the width and the height of the display. It is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon (x:y), where x corresponds to
Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio
Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as pulse-code modulation (PCM). The SQNR reflects the relationship between the max
Air-to-cloth ratio
The air-to-cloth ratio is the volumetric flow rate of air (m3/minute; SI m3/second) flowing through a dust collector's inlet duct divided by the total cloth area (m2) in the filters. The result is exp
Damping
Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing or preventing its oscillation. In physical systems, damping is produced by processes that dissipate the ene
In antenna theory, radiation efficiency is a measure of how well a radio antenna converts the radio-frequency power accepted at its terminals into radiated power. Likewise, in a receiving antenna it d
Signal-to-noise ratio
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. SNR is defined as the ratio of signal powe
Tip-speed ratio
The tip-speed ratio, λ, or TSR for wind turbines is the ratio between the tangential speed of the tip of a blade and the actual speed of the wind, . The tip-speed ratio is related to efficiency, with
Close-ratio transmission
A close-ratio transmission describes a motor vehicle transmission with a smaller than average difference between the gear ratios. They are most often used on sports cars in order to keep the engine in
Compression ratio
The compression ratio is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder and combustion chamber in an internal combustion engine at their maximum and minimum values. A fundamental specification for such
Contrast ratio
The contrast ratio (CR) is a property of a display system, defined as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest shade (white) to that of the darkest shade (black) that the system is capable of produ
Gain (antenna)
In electromagnetics, an antenna's gain is a key performance parameter which combines the antenna's directivity and radiation efficiency. The term power gain has been deprecated by IEEE. In a transmitt
Pixel aspect ratio
Pixel aspect ratio (often abbreviated PAR) is a mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel. Most digital imaging systems display
Carrier-to-noise ratio
In telecommunications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written CNR or C/N, is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal. The term is used to distinguish the CNR of the radio frequency pa
Price–performance ratio
In economics, engineering, business management and marketing the price–performance ratio is often written as cost–performance, cost–benefit or capability/price (C/P), refers to a product's ability to
Volumetric efficiency
Volumetric efficiency (VE) in internal combustion engine engineering is defined as the ratio of the mass density of the air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder at atmospheric pressure (during the int
Power factor
In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC power system is defined as the ratio of the real power absorbed by the load to the apparent power flowing in the circuit. Real power is the average