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Chowla–Mordell theorem

In mathematics, the Chowla–Mordell theorem is a result in number theory determining cases where a Gauss sum is the square root of a prime number, multiplied by a root of unity. It was proved and publi

Hasse–Davenport relation

The Hasse–Davenport relations, introduced by Davenport and Hasse, are two related identities for Gauss sums, one called the Hasse–Davenport lifting relation, and the other called the Hasse–Davenport p

Cyclotomic unit

In mathematics, a cyclotomic unit (or circular unit) is a unit of an algebraic number field which is the product of numbers of the form (ζan − 1) for ζn an nth root of unity and 0 < a < n.

Kummer sum

In mathematics, Kummer sum is the name given to certain cubic Gauss sums for a prime modulus p, with p congruent to 1 modulo 3. They are named after Ernst Kummer, who made a conjecture about the stati

Thaine's theorem

In mathematics, Thaine's theorem is an analogue of Stickelberger's theorem for real abelian fields, introduced by Thaine. Thaine's method has been used to shorten the proof of the Mazur–Wiles theorem,

Principal root of unity

In mathematics, a principal n-th root of unity (where n is a positive integer) of a ring is an element satisfying the equations In an integral domain, every primitive n-th root of unity is also a prin

Root of unity

In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power n. Roots of unity are used in many branches of m

Quadratic Gauss sum

In number theory, quadratic Gauss sums are certain finite sums of roots of unity. A quadratic Gauss sum can be interpreted as a linear combination of the values of the complex exponential function wit

Hilbert–Speiser theorem

In mathematics, the Hilbert–Speiser theorem is a result on cyclotomic fields, characterising those with a normal integral basis. More generally, it applies to any finite abelian extension of Q, which

Kummer–Vandiver conjecture

In mathematics, the Kummer–Vandiver conjecture, or Vandiver conjecture, states that a prime p does not divide the class number hK of the maximal real subfield of the p-th cyclotomic field. The conject

Stickelberger's theorem

In mathematics, Stickelberger's theorem is a result of algebraic number theory, which gives some information about the Galois module structure of class groups of cyclotomic fields. A special case was

Cyclotomic field

In number theory, a cyclotomic field is a number field obtained by adjoining a complex root of unity to Q, the field of rational numbers. Cyclotomic fields played a crucial role in the development of

Main conjecture of Iwasawa theory

In mathematics, the main conjecture of Iwasawa theory is a deep relationship between p-adic L-functions and ideal class groups of cyclotomic fields, proved by Kenkichi Iwasawa for primes satisfying th

Jacobi sum

In mathematics, a Jacobi sum is a type of character sum formed with Dirichlet characters. Simple examples would be Jacobi sums J(χ, ψ) for Dirichlet characters χ, ψ modulo a prime number p, defined by

Gauss sum

In algebraic number theory, a Gauss sum or Gaussian sum is a particular kind of finite sum of roots of unity, typically where the sum is over elements r of some finite commutative ring R, ψ is a group

Gaussian integer

In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers. The Gaussian integers, with ordinary addition and multiplication of complex numbers, form an

Herbrand–Ribet theorem

In mathematics, the Herbrand–Ribet theorem is a result on the class group of certain number fields. It is a strengthening of Ernst Kummer's theorem to the effect that the prime p divides the class num

Regular prime

In number theory, a regular prime is a special kind of prime number, defined by Ernst Kummer in 1850 to prove certain cases of Fermat's Last Theorem. Regular primes may be defined via the divisibility

Eisenstein integer

In mathematics, the Eisenstein integers (named after Gotthold Eisenstein), occasionally also known as Eulerian integers (after Leonhard Euler), are the complex numbers of the form where a and b are in

Eisenstein prime

In mathematics, an Eisenstein prime is an Eisenstein integer that is irreducible (or equivalently prime) in the ring-theoretic sense: its only Eisenstein divisors are the units {±1, ±ω, ±ω2}, a + bω i

Iwasawa theory

In number theory, Iwasawa theory is the study of objects of arithmetic interest over infinite towers of number fields. It began as a Galois module theory of ideal class groups, initiated by Kenkichi I

Kronecker–Weber theorem

In algebraic number theory, it can be shown that every cyclotomic field is an abelian extension of the rational number field Q, having Galois group of the form . The Kronecker–Weber theorem provides a

Gaussian period

In mathematics, in the area of number theory, a Gaussian period is a certain kind of sum of roots of unity. The periods permit explicit calculations in cyclotomic fields connected with Galois theory a

Gaussian rational

In mathematics, a Gaussian rational number is a complex number of the form p + qi, where p and q are both rational numbers.The set of all Gaussian rationals forms the Gaussian rational field, denoted

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