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Lepton number

In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge)is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an e

Chiral anomaly

In theoretical physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current. In everyday terms, it is equivalent to a sealed box that contained equal numbers of left and right-handed

Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. Exact conservation laws include conservation

Mutability

The principle of mutability is the notion that any physical property which appears to follow a conservation law may undergo some physical process that violates its conservation. John Archibald Wheeler

Translational symmetry

In geometry, to translate a geometric figure is to move it from one place to another without rotating it. A translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p) = p + a. In physics and mathematics, continuous tra

Zilch (electromagnetism)

In physics, zilch (or zilches) is a set of ten conserved quantities of the discovered by Lipkin in 1964. In particular, first, Daniel M. Lipkin observed that if he defined the quantities then the free

Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system. It is defined as where nq is the number of quarks, and nq is the number of antiquarks. Baryons (thre

Invariant (physics)

In theoretical physics, an invariant is an observable of a physical system which remains unchanged under some transformation. Invariance, as a broader term, also applies to the no change of form of ph

Noether's second theorem

In mathematics and theoretical physics, Noether's second theorem relates symmetries of an action functional with a system of differential equations. The action S of a physical system is an integral of

Noether's theorem

Noether's theorem or Noether's first theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system with conservative forces has a corresponding conservation law. The theorem was

Particle physics and representation theory

There is a natural connection between particle physics and representation theory, as first noted in the 1930s by Eugene Wigner. It links the properties of elementary particles to the structure of Lie

Vis-viva equation

In astrodynamics, the vis-viva equation, also referred to as orbital-energy-invariance law, is one of the equations that model the motion of orbiting bodies. It is the direct result of the principle o

Parity (physics)

In physics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate. In three dimensions, it can also refer to the simultaneous flip in the sign of all

Charge conservation

In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes. The net quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount

Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, momentum (more specifically linear momentum or translational momentum) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and

Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be positive or negative (commonly carri

Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important physical quantity because it is a conserved quantity—th

Gravitational energy

Gravitational energy or gravitational potential energy is the potential energy a massive object has in relation to another massive object due to gravity. It is the potential energy associated with the

Time translation symmetry

Time translation symmetry or temporal translation symmetry (TTS) is a mathematical transformation in physics that moves the times of events through a common interval. Time translation symmetry is the

Inversion transformation

In mathematical physics, inversion transformations are a natural extension of Poincaré transformations to include all conformal one-to-one transformations on coordinate space-time. They are less studi

Rotational invariance

In mathematics, a function defined on an inner product space is said to have rotational invariance if its value does not change when arbitrary rotations are applied to its argument.

BKS theory

The Bohr–Kramers–Slater theory (BKS theory) was perhaps the final attempt at understanding the interaction of matter and electromagnetic radiation on the basis of the so-called old quantum theory, in

Magnetic braking (astronomy)

Magnetic braking is a theory explaining the loss of stellar angular momentum due to material getting captured by the stellar magnetic field and thrown out at great distance from the surface of the sta

B − L

In high-energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L).

Conservation of mass

In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain

Groundwater energy balance

The groundwater energy balance is the energy balance of a groundwater body in terms of incoming hydraulic energy associated with groundwater inflow into the body, energy associated with the outflow, e

Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle. The Standard Model counts six flavours of quarks and six flavours of leptons. They are conventionally parameteri

CP violation

In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry). CP-symmetry s

Conservation of energy

In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time. This law, first proposed and test

Carter constant

The Carter constant is a conserved quantity for motion around black holes in the general relativistic formulation of gravity. Its SI base units are kg2⋅m4⋅s−2. Carter's constant was derived for a spin

Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation. A family of pa

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